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What are the most common types of childhood cancers?

The types of cancers that occur most often in children are different from those seen in adults. The most common cancers of children are:

Other types of cancers are rare in children, but they do happen sometimes. In very rare cases, children may even develop cancers that are much more common in adults.

 

In 2011 , the most commonly diagnosed cancers and leading causes of cancer death in children aged 0 to 19 years were—

Leukemias

  • Highest incidence rate (8.8) found among children aged 1 to 4 years.
  • Highest death rate (0.8) found among children aged 1 to 4 years.

 

Brain and central nervous system cancer

  • Highest incidence rate (4.7) found among children aged 1 to 4 years.
  • Highest death rate (0.9) found among children aged 5 to 9 years.

Source: U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. United States Cancer Statistics: 1999–2012 Incidence and Mortality Web-based Report. Atlanta (GA): Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Cancer Institute; 2015.

Note: The numbers in parentheses are the rates per 100,000 children in the United States.

 

Leukemia

Leukemias, which are cancers of the bone marrow and blood, are the most common childhood cancers. They account for about 34% of all cancers in children. The most common types in children are acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Leukemia may cause bone and joint pain, fatigue, weakness, bleeding, fever, weight loss, and other symptoms.

 

Brain and nervous system tumors

Brain and other nervous system tumors are the second most common cancers in children, and make up about 27% of childhood cancers. There are many types of brain tumors, and the treatment and outlook for each is different. Most brain tumors in children start in the lower parts of the brain, such as the cerebellum or brain stem. They can cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, blurred or double vision, dizziness, and trouble walking or handling objects. Adults are more likely to develop cancers in upper parts of the brain. Spinal cord tumors are less common than brain tumors in both children and adults.

 

Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma is a form of cancer that starts in early forms of nerve cells found in a developing embryo or fetus. It accounts for about 7% of childhood cancers. This type of cancer occurs in infants and young children. It is rarely found in children older than 10. This tumor can start anywhere but is usually in the belly (abdomen) and is noticed as swelling. It can also cause bone pain and fever.

 

Wilms tumor

Wilms tumor is a cancer that starts in one, or rarely, both kidneys. It is most often found in children about 3 to 4 years old, and is uncommon in children older than age 6. It can show up as a swelling or lump in the belly (abdomen). Sometimes the child might have other symptoms, like fever, pain, nausea, or poor appetite. Wilms tumor accounts for about 5% of childhood cancers.

 

Lymphoma

These are cancers that start in certain cells of the immune system called lymphocytes. These cancers most often affect lymph nodes and other lymph tissues, like the tonsils or thymus. They can also affect the bone marrow and other organs, and can cause different symptoms depending on where the cancer is growing. Lymphomas can cause weight loss, fever, sweats, weakness, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck, armpit, or groin.

There are 2 main types of lymphoma: Hodgkin lymphoma (sometimes called Hodgkin disease) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Both types can occur in both children and adults.

Hodgkin lymphoma accounts for about 4% of childhood cancers. It is more common, though, in 2 age groups: early adulthood (age 15 to 40, usually people in their 20s) and late adulthood (after age 55). Hodgkin lymphoma is rare in children younger than 5 years of age. This type of cancer is very similar in children and adults, including which types of treatment work best.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma also makes up about 4% of childhood cancers. It is more likely to occur in younger children than Hodgkin lymphoma, but it is still rare in children younger than 3. The most common types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children are different from those in adults. These cancers often grow quickly and require intensive treatment, but they also tend to respond better to treatment than most non-Hodgkin lymphomas in adults.

 

Rhabdomyosarcoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma starts in cells that normally develop into skeletal muscles. (These are the muscles that we control to move parts of our body.) It can happen in the head and neck, groin, belly (abdomen), pelvis, or in an arm or leg. It may cause pain, swelling (a lump), or both. This is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma in children. It makes up about 3% of childhood cancers.

 

Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the eye. It accounts for about 3% of childhood cancers. It usually occurs in children around the age of 2, and is seldom found in children older than 6. Retinoblastomas are usually found because a parent or doctor notices a child’s eye looks unusual. Normally when you shine a light in a child’s eye, the pupil (the dark spot in the center of the eye) looks red because of the blood in vessels in the back of the eye. In an eye with retinoblastoma, the pupil often looks white or pink. This white glare of the eye may be noticed after a flash picture is taken.

 

Bone cancers

Primary bone cancers (cancers that start in the bones) occur most often in older children and teens, but they can develop at any age.

Primary bone cancer is different from metastatic bone cancer, which is cancer that started somewhere else in the body and has spread to the bone. Metastatic bone cancer is more common than primary bone cancer because many types of cancer (including many cancers in adults) can spread to the bone.

Two main types of primary bone cancers occur in children:

Osteosarcoma accounts for about 3% of all new childhood cancer cases in the United States. It is most common in teens, and usually develops in areas where the bone is growing quickly, such as near the ends of the long bones in the legs or arms. It often causes bone pain that gets worse at night or with activity. It can also cause swelling in the area around the bone.

Ewing sarcoma is a less common primary bone cancer, which can also cause bone pain. It is most often found in young teens. The most common places for it to start are the bones in the pelvis, the chest wall (such as the ribs or shoulder blades), or in the middle of the long leg bones. Ewing sarcoma accounts for about 1% of childhood cancers.
Last Medical Review: 09/20/2012
Last Revised: 01/18/2013